Apple: HR Functions

Introduction

Apple is a multinational organization that is famous for the designs and innovation of the product in world.  Apple is the technology company head quartered in California. The company develops and sells the computer software, consumer electronics and other online services. the products in hardware of Apple includes the iPhone smartphone and the iPad tablet computer, portable media player, Apple watch, Mac personal computer, iOS operating systems, iTunes media player, OS X, Safari web browser and iCloud. Apple is a symbol status and a well known brand in international market. In addition, Apple is a cost leader in market (apple, 2014).

Apple was founded in 1976 by Steve Wozniak, Steve Jobs and Ronald Wayne. It was incorporated as the Apple Computer, Inc. and renamed as Apple Inc. in 1977. From the year 2007, it reflects and focuses on the consumer electronics. On the basis of the revenues, the Apple is the largest information technology company in world (Court, 2011). In addition, it is the third largest mobile phone manufacturer. Moreover, it is the first company of the US that to be valued over the $700 billion. The company employees about 115,000 permanent and full-time workers and also maintains 453 retail stores in different sixteen countries all over the world.

Apple is employ a large amount or pool of the workforce in different country. This means the HR department of the organization is very effective and efficient. Normally, the functions of HR include recruitment and selection, hiring, compensation, training and development, time management, conflict management and many others. This is important to have a look and study on the HR department of Apple Company especially on the hiring process, compensation system and training and development of employees (Guest, Paauwe, & Wright, 2012). The reason to choose these is that they have more important as compare to others. The skilled labor or experienced workforce is a human capital that cannot be replaced or copied.

Recruitment and Placement

The purpose of the recruitment and placement is to find the right person to the right job in the organization. The success of the organization also includes effective and efficient workforce that participates in execution of the action plans. The hiring process of Apple is simple and there is not complexity in the process of recruitment and placement (Gusdorf, 2008). The reason to keep the process simple is to save the time. However, there are some important steps that taken by the management and HR departments in order to make the hiring process transparent and efficient.

Recruitment is the process of attracting individuals on timely basis with appropriate qualifications and sufficient numbers to apply for a vacant post in the organization. The recruitment of the candidates starts with offering of the job. The advertisement of job is post on the official website of the organization. Planning of HR indicates the need and requirements of the additional labor for the organization (HRM, 2014). Moreover, the HODs of different departments or the managers can ask the HR department to hire a person. Job description and Job specifications is provided by the departmental manager to HR. the HR then put the requirements in the advertisement and starts the process of selection and recruitments. This is the first step in the full-scale recruitment and selection process at Apple (SUBRAMONY, 2009).

The recruitment and placement is the most important for Apple Company reveals the major considerations of right job at right place.  For effective job recruitment and placement it reveals that job description as well as roles of job duties is clearly defined. Specifically for the apple company it is ensured that high IT professionals are required to manage operations of Apple Company.  Specifically affirmative action’s has taken to corresponded employee’s roles and responsibilities to attain best organizational performance characteristics. 

Collaborative function with leadership formulation is the main highlighted operational strategically implications of company.  The recruitment and selection process has followed by company to hire right person for right job.  A wide range of process helps the companies to gain qualified employee in large amount of pool of candidates.

Identification of vacancy opportunity as well as evaluation of job needs has analyzed in the recruitment and placement of employees.  After that recruitment of development plan to reveals the major considerations of employee’s job description at workplace.  Review Applicants and Develop Short List to highlighted qualified candidate in the job recruitment (Gusdorf, 2008).

The need and time also determines the type of process or recruitment method. Apple uses different types of the process for the hiring process. When the hiring of the employees are more for some special project then this will be done by HR department of Apple (apple, 2014). On the other hand, if additional labor or employees are required then management of Apple or HR department uses the alternatives to recruiting. These alternatives to recruit include:

  • Outsourcing
  • Contingent Labor
  • Internal Recruitment
  • Nepotism (Positive)

In addition, if the need is only for the temporary basis on the temporary fluctuation in work volume, the simplest way adopted by HR is to hire part time labor.

Internal Environment

Promotion of employees

The promotion policy of Apple also effects on the recruitment process. If there is open position above any entry level, then the company prefers to promote someone already working for the organization. This method is appropriate for the organization because:

  • Company has to avoid the long process
  • Saves time
  • Reduce the cost of new hiring
  • Experienced employee
  • No need of the verification from other resources
  • Employee already has Knowledge about the functions and culture of Apple

This also helps the employee to aware from their growth opportunities and increased income by moving up within their own organization. Indirectly the placement under promotion also helps the employees to motivate and committed for their work in organization.

Nepotism

The hiring of the relatives to any job or post is called nepotism. This can be said as the discrimination and violation of the Equal Employment Opportunity Act. However, there is little difference in nepotism. The negative and positive nepotism affects the hiring process. Apple somehow use positive nepotism just for the sake of fulfill requirement of instant need for the employee (apple.com, 2015). The positive nepotism means if there is a person and it fulfills the criteria of Job description and Job specification then he can appoint. Moreover, this also gives the surety of the already employee of the organization. However, this is mandatory to explain that this process or methods is rarely use. It only depends on the situation management has face.

Internal Recruitment and Placement

The process of the internal recruitment and placement of Apple is as under.

  1. Job Posting
  2. Employee Referrals

Job Posting

This is the traditional method used by the management or HR department of the Apple. The job is posted simply on the website of the organization. This is the most common method to find qualified applicants from inside the organization. The job opening is to post notice of the job on the bulletin board of HR. in addition, the HR department of Apple post jobs electronically through the internal communication of the organization (novriansyah, 2009). This includes:

  1. Sending of E-mails
  2. Use of intranets to all employees about the vacant job position

 The newspaper also uses for most important jobs and or position in the Apple. Moreover, the medium of job posting may variant according to the host country.

This is responsibility of the HR department to make the adequate job posting that also ensure the quota of minority workers. On the other hand, this is also helpful for the organization to make aware other disadvantaged groups about available opportunities within the organization. In addition, the downside to job posting is employee cynicism that happens when jobs are posted as open (Court, 2011). Sometimes, the organization can already selected and place a strong candidate for the vacant post.

The site is exceptionally easy to understand with an awesome web crawler and one can apply for the employment through the genuine site by transferring their resume and introductory letter. The ability obtaining delegate is in charge of transferring and keeping up the positions on this site. Apple is using different outside techniques for selecting (Guest, Paauwe, & Wright, 2012).

Employee Referrals

Most of the managers prefer to hire the people from referred by existing employees. This will the organization to hire the most appropriate and the top performer for the organization. In addition, this also reduces the time and cost for the organization. Current employees plays important role for finding of the new employees for the organization (apple.com, 2015). In addition, management of Apple also gives bonuses to employees for the successful referrals. The purpose of bonuses is to make them realized that they are important for the organization. In addition, this also creates the competition among employees for finding of the best employees for the organization.

Apple is not using this method at its full pace. The ratio is minimum and time bard recruitment. In addition, the extensive use of this method is against the law and company can face some legal issues in this regard (HRM, 2014). This method is used at very low level. Most of times, the new project requires some posts on temporary basis therefore, the organization go for employee referrals to fulfill its need and requirement. In addition, the talent acquisition team made by HR department also helps to find out the skilled, capable and qualified workforce for the technology company.

Human Resource capacities are finished midway at the corporate office. These capacities could incorporate:

  • Finance
  • Pay
  • Advantages
  • Enrollment
  • Learning and advancement

The centralization permits Apple to utilize their economies of scale, which is monetarily good, to lessen repetitive procedures, and to guarantee that every clinic or specialty unit is uniform by and by. It ought to be noticed that Apple Human Resource offices have as of late experienced an expansive rebuild. This rebuild has lessened the general number of HR experts while in the meantime streamlining and unifying a few practices.

The Talent Acquisition division was recently made from the rebuild specified earlier. Before the rebuild, every doctor’s facility and specialty unit had one or various selection representatives at the neighborhood HR office responsible for filling positions for their area. After the rebuild, the enrollment endeavors were brought together to exploit Apple economies of scale. There are currently sure territories instead of areas that selection representatives have obligation regarding distinctive staff. In the creator’s supposition, it appears that Apple has basically made an in-house staffing office.

Internet Recruiting

The organization is famous for the innovation and design. The organization is also uses the internet and social media for the recruitment of the employees. All types of the jobs are also posted or the link of the website of the organization is posted on different sites so that a large number of the employees or candidate can search and apply for the job. The advertisement also has the complete information of the job analysis (Court, 2011). The candidate can made the analysis of the Job description and Job specification. If he or she fulfills the criteria then he or she can easily apply without any ambiguity.

This type of the recruitment benefits both candidates and the organization. For the organization it cost less as compare to the traditional method of the recruitment. On the other hand, the people can search online and advertisement covers the large area of the market to find the best match and best fit for the organization. Moreover, this is the faster way and the instant feedback also helps to improve the ad posting of the organization (apple.com, 2015).

Moreover, the online process helps to hire the employee instantly because this also provides the function of the screening. Moreover, this significantly reduce the HR time require to generate a pool of qualified candidates.

This is essential for the association to concentrate likewise on HR and advancement of this office. The quality of the association is that it gives the preparation focus and confirmation to the workers and also other individuals with the goal that they will be compelling and gainful for the association. The enlistment and choice of the Apple is generally on customary routines. Be that as it may, the utilization of the web is additionally attainable. The need is to build up the arrangement and enrollment arrangement of Apple.

The thought of the human resource information systems comes from the merging activities between the information technologies and human resource processes for maintaining and collecting the data of its employees effectively and accurately. HRIS is a latest recruitment strategy or process developed through the help of technology due to the revolution of internet. The E-recruitment is termed to be internet base and web base recruitment processes.

There are development of numerous challenging task sheets player, for example, search4job, Seek thus on that permit hopefuls post and specifically section their data on site all day, every day. Amid over recent decade there are far-reaching E-Recruitment strategies alluded to the data from overview if the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development or CIPD in 2008 (CIPD, 2010), 75% of organization utilize their own site to pull in the applications and it is the fourth prevalent system in enrolling.

This crated new enrollment stage in present and potential to be convey broadly later on from expanding pattern of clients of group site; for occurrence, Facebook has more than 150 million overall clients from CIPD study in 2009.  The advancement of web 2.0 that identified with two way correspondence encourage collaboration between whether clients and separate and among clients and clients, for example, data sharing, online groups.

As experts said that individuals more than 100 million are utilizing online person to person communication webpage such Facebook, Twitter, YouTube thus on in this manner web 2.0 set up another related and associated world. The rising trends of the people are focusing more on the internet as a mean for being hired in any organization (Court, 2011).

Training and Development

Training and development is one of the major and important function of the HR. Apple of HR conducts different training and development for the employees of the Apple. Training is given on different technologies to the new and existing employees. This helps the organization to keep and update the knowledge of the employees and make them motivated and increase their productivity at job.

For this purpose, Apple has established a authorized training center for the employees and also others people to get benefited from this training center. In addition, Apple training centre is offering the comprehensive curriculum that addresses a broad range of the technical proficiencies. This also helps to create the competent IT professionals, students and an educator that makes them able to serve as technician in Apple or some other organization.

The purpose of Apple training center is:

  • Quality
  • Simplicity
  • Innovation

Apple is famous and known in the market as innovation leader and unique features and designs of the products. The Apple Authorized Training Centre (AATC) program was developed along the same principles of innovation, quality and simplicity. This training centre provides the quality instructor-led marketing customers trainings (apple.com, 2015). The training is provided to the delivered exclusively by Apple Certified Trainers (ACTs). The program provides the Exceptional Learning Experience on the global scale. This also supports the organization to provide the world class help in the areas of:

  1. Online Exposure
  2. Event Support
  3. Training & Exam Development
  4. Marketing Materials

Training and development of the employees or the management of Apple Inc or any of the other organization help to increase the performance of the organization. That is the reason that Apple, Inc introduces something innovative or the different. Because this training help to innovative something different, and it the competitive advantages to the Apple Inc. Training or the development help the Apple Inc to optimum utilization of the human resources, it help the organization to utilize the resources that help to increase the profitability of Apple Inc. It help to develop the human resources, it provide the broad structure or opportunity for the development of the human resources like the behavioral or the technical skills in Apple Inc. These technical or the behavioral skills help Apple Inc to introduce something different from the other organizations. In addition, the most important thing is that it affects the productivity of Apple Inc in positive way that helps to increase the profit ratio of the organization (apple.com, 2015).

Training to the employees of the Apple Inc help to increase the spirit of the team. This thing also helps the Apple Inc to achieve the long-term goals or the objectives, when employees of the organization will learn new things then it become easy to innovate something new. Culture of Apple Inc will be better, this thing affect the effectiveness or the efficiency of the organization. In this way, more customers attract towards Apple Inc, and the profit ratio of the organization will increase.

Certifications and Training programs for development

In addition, this training center provides different kinds of the certifications to improve the competencies of the employees, students, educators and professionals. These are as follows:

  1. Achievement of Industry-recognized certification
  2. Mac OS X Client Deployment
  3. Development and Implementation of Apple Xsan
  4. Certification & Expertise in Apple’s Professional Digital Media applications
  5. Apple Certified Trainer Status
  6. Requirements for Apple’s Service Technician programs
  7. Integration of Mac computers into a mixed environment of computing

Every division at Apple decides the positions important to run an effective office amid the monetary allowance process. Once another occupation position needs made, the procuring supervisor for the position contacts the enlisting office to start the procedure (apple.com, 2015). The poll requests the employment title, area, division date, and endorsement, and essential capacity, crucial elements of the position, hierarchical connections, measurements, particular learning, and extra data.

 The purpose of the recruitment for the workforce diversity is to make the culture and environment of the organization more strong and knowledge sharing. Each division at Apple chooses the positions essential to run a viable office in the midst of the financial remittance process.

Once another occupation position needs made, the acquiring administrator for the position contacts the enrolling office to begin the technique (apple.com, 2015). The survey asks for the vocation title, territory, division date, and underwriting, and fundamental limit, pivotal components of the position, various leveled associations, estimations, specific learning, and additional information. The reason for the enrollment for the workforce differing qualities is to make the way of life and environment of the association more solid and information sharing.

Strengths and Weaknesses

Overall the functions of HR are effective in Apple. However, the most of the focus of the management is on the innovation and technological enhancement of the organization. This is important for the organization to focus also on HR and development of this department. The strength of the organization is that it provides the training center and certification to the employees as well as other people so that they will be effective and beneficial for the organization. The recruitment and selection of the Apple is mostly on traditional methods. However, the use of the internet is also feasible. The need is to develop the placement and recruitment system of Apple.

There is need for the specific talent hunting teams to capture the educational institutions to hire the top performer and efficient workforce in company. Weakness in the HR functions is that they do not empower the employees as much as they can be. The placement and recruitment needs to align with HR functions. The main focus of the company is on the quality and innovation therefore, Apple is providing the unique and effective training programs.

The whole HR capacity with the direction of a solid selecting office has made a solid brand name for Eaton and has made it known as a “worker cordial” association on a worldwide basis. Their “employee benevolent” picture, and in addition help from a solid enlisting office, has helped them to enlist the best and brightest people to develop the association and help with effectively coordinating expansive acquisitions.

The pay division has made a phenomenal showing of making reasonable pay bundles for all workers. They audit economic situations and adjust their pay structures to be aggressive with business sector keeping in mind the end goal to hold top ability.

There is requirement for the particular ability chasing groups to catch the instructive organizations to enlist the top entertainer and productive workforce in organization. Shortcoming in the HR capacities is that they don’t enable the representatives as much as they can be. The position and enlistment needs to adjust to HR capacities. The principle center of the organization is on the quality and advancement in this way, Apple is giving the interesting and successful preparing projects.

The whole HR capacity with the direction of a solid enrolling office has made a solid brand name for Apple and has made it known as a “representative well disposed” association on a worldwide premise. For instance, Apple was positioned twentieth in the posting of best work environment in Northeast Ohio, where their home office are found. A work place without any passings or dangerous acts needs to happen.

A workplace with representatives biting the dust discolors the association’s notoriety. In the present business world, discolored business notoriety can diminish business, debilitate associations with suppliers, and in addition representatives. At the point when this happens, incomes fall and costs expand which influences primary concern execution and shareholder return.

Performance Management at Apple

Performance management is very essential for the development of the organization. This helps the management to keep an eye on the performance of the employees. In addition, this also helps to get the weak areas of employees and tells about the needed skills for the establishment and increase the effectiveness of the employee. With effect performance appraisal system the management can increase the productivity of the employees.

HR should be prepared more in work-place savagery. The preparation ought not to stop with HR. This will avert or relieve any work-place viciousness. Sound representatives are for the most part more profitable. They are likewise less expensive to guarantee, sparing the association numerous in social insurance advantages. HR offices are by and large not included in the usage or everyday capacities with respect to wellbeing and security.

HR, be that as it may, is included in representative wellbeing from others and guarantees the work territory is sheltered. Upkeep keeps up the office’s physical security. HR is included in keeping up security from work environment viciousness. Security guarantees wellbeing from outside individuals or powers.

The competitor can made the examination of the Job depiction and Job particular. In the event that he or she satisfies the criteria then he or she can undoubtedly apply with no vagueness. What’s more, administration of Apple additionally offers rewards to workers for the effective referrals. The motivation behind rewards is to make them understood that they are vital for the association.

Furthermore, this additionally makes the opposition among representatives for finding of the best workers for the association. The centralization licenses Apple to use their economies of scale, which is fiscally great, to reduce redundant strategies, and to ensure that each facility or claim to fame unit is uniform before long. This system is utilized at low level. The majority of times, the new venture requires a few posts on interim premise along these lines, the association go for representative referrals to satisfy its need and necessity.

Compensation

Rewards and benefits initiated to retain the employee values.  The apple company develops wide compensational plans for their employees.  The retention of employees is the most important aspect for the organizations to achieve high performance characteristics towards the organization.  Bonus pay plans and retirement plans are the major aspects of compensation. As the high quality assurance is the competitive advantage of the apple company and provides compensation and rewards to their employees to sustain their services for the corporate level. Insurance benefits another perks are delivered to employees based on the performance management of individual employees to retain their values in the firm values.

 Thus to sum up all discussion about the compensations and rewards of apple company that reveals the major outcomes of human resource practices to care of employee benefits.  In addition to this rewards in the form of monetary as well as non monetary delivered to perceive that employees are the core asset of the organization.  Work life balances and positive organizational behaviors in the apple company derives high level of corporate values.

 The highly attractive compensation packages recognized at the apple company to unleash the employee major services of the company. Reimbursement packages are also delivered to employees to motivate employees.  The motivational values of employees are so important to increase the overall productivity of Apple Company.

Compensation is very necessary for retaining and keeping the employees with organization. In addition, this is the most useable way to keep the employees motivated for the work. Moreover, the compensation plan or salary structure helps to reduce the turnover ratio within the organization. This is important for the management to keep the experienced and skilled labor with it. The reason is that skilled employees are human capital of an organization that cannot be replaced or copied. Moreover, competitors can also not able to copy the human assets of other company. Therefore, Apple is providing the handsome compensation amount to its employees.

The pay which incorporates pay and advantages at Apple is supervised by the pay office. The pay structure outline is the same for administrators and non-officials; however the administrators get extra rewards and investment opportunities. The remuneration office is partitioned into the two gatherings, official and non-official pay. The witticism of the pay (Total Rewards) gathering is “I am secured.” The division’s essential center is remuneration and finance, representative advantages, and the motivating force program (SUBRAMONY, 2009).

Poor entertainers are paid practically the same (or precisely the same in the greater part of cases) as top entertainers. The remuneration program should be reexamined to give the adaptability that is required in the medicinal services industry. Once a representative maxes out in pay scale, there ought to still be some impetus for them. Maybe they ought to give the worker a little singular amount pay out on the off chance that they get a decent execution survey.

This will take into consideration the pay for execution rationality to still be pertinent to the workers that are pushed to the limit. Likewise, there is no space for time-based compensation transaction when given advancement, offered a position or tackling extra obligations. The organization does, be that as it may, give the greater part of its workers a raise at any rate once per year. For both low maintenance and full-time representatives that have no come to their pay band top, these brings happen up in January and July.

Recommendation

Apple needs to reform the recruitment according to new trends and requirements. This suggestion is on the analysis of the process of hiring within the organization. The Apple is the 3rd largest mobile manufacturer this means this is doing much effective steps in the organization. The HR has to establish a unique team of the talent hunt. In order to provide more effectiveness in the market Apple can avail the opportunity to collaborate with different technical institutes. The purpose is to hire the students and give them training in technology. The research institute established for the institution can also put the positive effects on the business and growth of Apple in market.

Apple needs to change the enrollment as indicated by new patterns and prerequisites. This recommendation is on the examination of the procedure of employing inside of the association. The Apple is the third biggest portable producer this implies this is doing much viable strides in the association. The HR needs to set up an one of a kind group of the ability chase. So as to give more viability in the business sector, Apple has to work for the health and safety of employees.

Apple can benefit the chance to work together with diverse specialized foundations. The intention is to contract the understudies and give them preparing in innovation. The examination foundation built up for the organization can likewise put the constructive outcomes on the business and development of Apple in business sector.

What’s more, Apple has additionally to run a formal maintenance program for the representatives. The interest of representatives ought to additionally help the association to chip away at new thoughts and development of administrations and items. Besides, Apple ought to work for the work-life parity for the representatives. Execution administration framework will supportive for the association to perceive the needs and prerequisites for the workers.

In addition, Apple has also to run a formal retention program for the employees. The participation of employees should also help the organization to work on new ideas and innovation of services and products. Moreover, Apple should work for the work-life balance for the employees. Performance management system will helpful for the organization to recognize the needs and requirements for the employees.

HR is the most important department of Apple or all of the other organizations. Apple have to give the main focus on this department, because it is responsibility of this depart to hire the right people for the right positions who are capable. Organizations have to hire the people who are capable and have the awareness about the demands of needs of the customers, because in this way it becomes easy for them to satisfy the customers. It is the large organization of the mobile manufacturing industry, therefore for maintaining the brand image they have to hire people who have the innovative ideas and have the ability to solve the problems.  This thing helps the organization to introduce the things according to needs of the customers, because customers are the important asset of any of the organization, therefore, it is essential for apple to satisfy them by fulfilling their needs.

Conclusion

Apple is a multinational association that is acclaimed for the outlines and development of the item in world. Mac was established in 1976 by Steve Wozniak, Steve Jobs and Ronald Wayne. It was fused as the Apple Computer, Inc. what’s more, renamed as Apple Inc. in 1977. From the year 2007, it thinks about and centers the customer hardware. This is vital to observe and think about on the HR branch of Apple Company particularly on the procuring procedure, remuneration framework and preparing and advancement of workers.

The motivation behind the enlistment and position is to locate the correct individual to the right employment in the association. The achievement of the association likewise incorporates powerful and proficient workforce that partakes in execution of the activity arranges. The procuring procedure of Apple is basic and there is not many-sided quality during the time spent enlistment and arrangement. The need and time additionally decides the kind of procedure or enlistment strategy. Apple utilizes diverse sorts of the procedure for the enlisting procedure.

Apple by one means or another use positive nepotism only for the purpose of satisfies necessity of moment requirement for the worker. The capacity getting agent is accountable for exchanging and keeping up the positions on this site.

The constructive nepotism implies if there is a man and it satisfies the criteria of Job depiction and Job detail then he can delegate. This is obligation of the HR division to make the satisfactory occupation posting that likewise guarantee the standard of minority laborers. What’s more, administration of Apple likewise offers rewards to representatives for the fruitful referrals. The reason for rewards is to make them understood that they are vital for the association. Furthermore, this additionally makes the opposition among representatives for finding of the best workers for the association.

References

apple. (2014). Apple Authorized Training Center. Retrieved December 5, 2015, from http://training.apple.com/pdf/AATC_Program_Overview.pdf

apple.com. (2015). Apple Training and Certification Get Started. Get Technical. Get Certified. Retrieved December 5, 2015, from http://www.apple.com/education/docs/Apple-TrainingCertificationCatalogWeb.pdf

Court, T. (2011). How the HR function can build the capability to change. Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal, 25(1), 16 – 18.

Guest, D. E., Paauwe, J., & Wright, P. (2012). HRM and Performance: Achievements and Challenges. John Wiley & Sons.

Gusdorf, M. L. (2008). Recruitment and Selection: Hiring the Right Person. Society For Human Resource Management, 1-19.

HRM. (2014). Importance of Human Resource Management. Retrieved December 5, 2015, from http://www.humanresourceexcellence.com/importance-of-human-resource-management/

novriansyah, n. (2009). The volatility and evolution of computer industry. Retrieved December 5, 2015, from https://novriansyah.wordpress.com/2009/10/01/global-business-environment-analysis-of-apple/

SUBRAMONY, M. (2009). A META-ANALYTIC INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HRM BUNDLES AND FIRM PERFORMANCE. Human Resource Management, 48(5), 745– 768.

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