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Posted By Admin @ Feb 26, 2022


Annotated Bibliography
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Annotated Bibliography
Abreu, L. (2016). Awareness of Racial Diversity in the Spanish-Speaking World among L2 Spanish Speakers. American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, 49 (1), 180–190.
 This study was done to explore what perception is held by the postsecondary second language learners as well as their instructors, with regards to the physical appearance of native Spanish speakers. It is important to conduct such studies to know about racial diversity and its awareness recognized by the L2 Spanish speakers. A review of the literature was done to see what has been found in previous research studies for getting more insight into the topic. After reviewing the literature, it was time to collect data from the participants to get a real-world perspective. The students who were enrolled in the University of Southern Mississippi's Spanish programs were sent an email to participate in this study. The positive response came from 241 students to volunteer in this study.
 The majority of these students were those, who have never studied abroad. The age of all students was above the age of 18 years old. Moreover, nine Spanish instructors also participated in the study. After their consent to participate in the survey, both instructors and students were provided an online survey to give their opinion. The participants were shown different photos to get their answers about each photo so that they can identify the people in the photos. There was a total of 24 photos, in 12 photos, there were native Spanish speakers, and in the other 12 photos, there were 12 native English speakers. After collecting the responses, the data was analyzed and to find out any relationship between the variables, ANOVA was used. So, results were derived after the analysis to see what kind of physical characteristics were identified by the instructors and learners with regards to native Spanish speakers using those 24 photos.
 The ratings given by the instructors were a bit higher as compared to the ratings given by the students. It was observed that research in this area has been very limited and more research is needed. It was concluded in the end that stereotypes were existing about the Spanish speakers if the physical attributes of the learners were narrow. This study was very important in terms of getting the perception of students as well as instructors regarding the importance of having some kind of contact with the Spanish other than the classroom setting so that things can be better in raising awareness about the racial diversity (Abreu, 2016).
CANAGARAJAH, S. (2014). In Search of a New Paradigm for Teaching English as an International Language. TESOL Journal, 5 (4).
 This study is an important one for the English language, especially considering it as an international language. It has been observed that the English language has been going through various radical changes in recent times, and the good thing about these changes is that new ways are being discovered in terms of teaching English to speakers of a multilingual background. The English language has been well defined by the scholars and they have explained it very well so that people from all backgrounds can understand its perspective. The scholars are coming up with a strong argument that now the English language should not be considered with the pre-constructed varieties, rather it should be taken in a practice form so that more people can learn the English language.
 This study tried to take two perspectives to be analyzed so that viable conclusions can be made. First of all, it considered pedagogical implications that how procedural knowledge can be developed so that students can handle the variety of English language which is present when they will make any global contacts. It was assumed that awareness of language is quite different from its rules and grammar etc. The second perspective taken in this study was the pedagogical practice. After looking at both perspectives and defining their relevant aspects with detail, it was concluded in the end that there are various things for teachers to take as serious concerns. It was concluded that teachers can use the different methods so that they can cultivate the procedural knowledge with the help of negotiation strategies, rhetorical sensitivities, and language awareness.
 Teachers need to do so, because English is growing as an international language, so they have to come up with a new paradigm, which is more suitable and flexible for the variety of people on a global scale. This study is very fruitful in analyzing the English language as an international language, and then understanding its different perspectives so that a new paradigm is found, which is considered to be used by everyone around the globe. The research study was not empirical in mature, so its findings can be found a bit limited, but the overall analysis was good to get an idea about English as an international language. Future studies can take a lot of ideas from this study to explore more relevant research areas related to the English language on the international level (CANAGARAJAH, 2014).
Correa, D., & González, A. (2016). English in Public Primary Schools in Colombia: Achievements and Challenges Brought about by National Language Education Policies. education policy analysis archives, 24 (83).
 This study is a good one to get the perspective of the English language from a country, where the English language is not native, and considered as a foreign language. In this study, the focus of attention is Columbia. In 2004, the government of Colombia decided that they are going to induct the English language as a primary foreign language to be taught in educational institutions including schools, colleges, and universities. They came up with a decision to ensure that they can compete on a global level because English is coming as an important and dominant foreign language on the international level. That's why, since 2004, various programs have been introduced by the government so that the English language is integrated into their educational system.
              This study analyzed four major programs in this period, which were launched by the government, and the basic purpose of this analysis to see how these programs were fruitful for their educational system, and what kind of issues we're faced by them. This study came up with two aspects, first they analyzed the four major programs critically, and secondly, they derived some conclusions about these programs to give considerable recommendations. After a detailed analysis of four programs and their outcomes, it was concluded that the overall purpose of these programs was good, but there were gaps in the policy. It was good to come up with these programs so that Colombian citizens can learn the English language from the primary school level and become competitive on a global scale, but they did not realize that their existing education system was not able to handle these programs. For instance, teachers were not that qualified to integrate these programs as they too were not that efficient in the English language.