Interpersonal Trust at Workplace
Present project investigate interpersonal trust at work place. Interpersonal trust is an important factor for the productivity of the organization. Therefore, present project highlight its importance. The objectives of the research study include role of trust in workplace environment, building strong relationships among employees effect on performance of employees, relationship between interpersonal trust and workplace.
Behavior evaluate whether interpersonal trust helps and in increasing cooperation and decision-making. Exploratory analysis was conducted in the research. A projected sample size of 100 was taken and primary data was collected for the project. The collected data was coded and analyzed, using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) and time and financial constraints were the major limitations of the study.
Males included in the study were 57.14% whereas females included were 42.86%. Age range for the respondents is ranging for the 10% for 18-24, 70% for the 25-34, 35-44 for less than 10% and less than 20% for the 55-64. These were the major demographics of the respondents. They were evaluated in the study and have deep impact on the research process and the findings.
The study is significant in number of ways. It is beneficial for the researchers as well the practitioners. Both will get benefit from the proposed recommendations. Organizational work place will improve and workforce will be in position to get improved under the light of recommendation provided by the research project.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction
Interpersonal associations depend upon trust. If colleagues at work do not trust each other as indicated by Wood (2015), fruitful associations more often than not have abnormal amounts of trust in the working environment, while unsuccessful associations do not. The individuals who are not trusted by their collaborators or managers more often than not have little impact in the work environment, while the individuals who are trusted are powerful. Progressing inside of the association may rely upon your capacity to develop interpersonal connections in light of trust.
In addition, great communication in the working environment relies upon trust, in light of the fact that individuals infrequently impart transparently without it. The more you trust the individual you are talking with, the more plausible you are to share information straightforwardly and to tell the other individual how you really feel about the situation. Compelling and productive affiliations require clear and complete communication in the workplace. Thus, this proposed study will explore how interpersonal trust plays an important role in building key relationships between boss and subordinates. The proposed study will also reflect on whether employees perceive trust to be important within their workplaces.
The aims and objectives of research provide a researcher with a clear direction of what needs to be studied. As the purpose of this study is to determine the significance of trust at workplace environment, the following research aims are developed for this study:
- To determine the role of trust in workplace environment
- To assess whether trust helps building strong relationships among employees
- To evaluate whether interpersonal trust exert main effect on performance of employees in organization
- To assess the relationship between interpersonal trust and workplace behavior
- To evaluate whether interpersonal trust helps in increasing cooperation, decision making processes and employee’s efforts
The following research hypothesis will be tested for this research:
H1: Interpersonal trust positively impact worker’s performance in an organization
H2: Interpersonal trust positively impact employee’s workplace behavior
H3: Interpersonal trust increases employee’s cooperation and decision-making processes
This study will provide significant means for organizations to know the role of trust at workplace. It is widely known that worker’s improved performance is the ultimate goal of any manager. This study will offer important insights how the trust factor can be used to improve work performance in organizations and how the performance of workers is reduced if there is no interpersonal trust present trust present between the workers.
Chapter 2: Literature review
The history of trust between employers and employees is complex, at least in the United States. For example, there is a long history of workers. They struggled with their employers for a minimum wage, a five-day workweek, an eight-hour workday, and a safe work environment. These kinds of struggles took place in the nineteenth and twentieth century’s, and with the achievement of workplace rights, there has been an opportunity to build better trust between workers and bosses the last few decades.
As Dirks & Ferrin (2014) argue, establishing trust within the workplace has been an issue for a long time. The literature on trust in the workplace is expansive and shows how crucial interpersonal trust is within a work environment, especially for that workplace to be effective. According to Garrett (2015), interpersonal trust is “The degree to which a man is certain about and eager to follow” the rules set up by another. However, should workers follow rules without understanding them?
In addition, is it part of the work of human resource professionals to make sure that workers both understand and agree with the directions they are required to take? These questions can be addressed by reviewing the literature on interpersonal trust in the workplace, and such a review is the work of this paper. The writing on interpersonal trust in the workplace examines many different kinds of relationships, and one of the most important is that between men and women (Lai et al, 2014).
Morita and Burns (2014) explore this wonder in three measurements, for example, consistency, constancy, and confidence segments. In their discoveries creators expressed that confidence has the most astounding impact on cozy connections in the middle of men and women. In addition, women were more influenced by these measurements men, “For ladies there were solid relationships among each of the three segments of trust, while men demonstrated a separation of the three elements” (p. 88). On the other hand, for men just confidence and trustworthiness were feebly related.
Perry (2004) gave that validity, choice investment, strengthening, and feedback were noteworthy indicators of supervisor belief. Where laborers have the affiliation, their company’s soundness as well as mental picture, take an enthusiasm for corporate. Orchestrating and decision making, in that affiliation, sentiment support among the specialists is at its top. Wech (2002) suggested that today, the criteria of being a challenger is to make blueprints for specialists take an enthusiasm into the organization.
While making a trustful space for their viably commitment into the organization. Trust in pioneers was seen to be on a very basic level about the participative decision-making and congregation of desires of supporters (Bijlsma & Koopman, 2003). Zhu et al. (2013) also stated that interest in the overall process of decision making appears to propel satisfaction and obligation in jobs, while errand diversity in addition to work attempt promote hobby.
In addition, it was supported by the study of Wang (2003) that agent support in the process of decision-making has been comprehensively pushed as a strategy for extending definitive sufficiency. He further supposed that representative cooperation in choice making assumed a basic part at the back of high profitability, capacity in addition to the headway of worker inspiration as well as duty. Then again, it grants administration to pick up advantage from representatives’ learning, mastery, and experience.
Wang (2003) further declared that it is critical to see how directors’ trust impact their eagerness to empower representative support in specific situations. This article describes the new dimensions about control system, time, measurement and reciprocity. this recent research recognize the new areas of trust such as, emotion, affect, violation, repair, cross culture an international issues, distrust, context specific models and finally disclose new opportunities for future research.
The purpose of this article is to integrate all the views, perspectives and insights of scholars who had wrote about the trust in to one model. A single model that generally applicable and can be used across the multiple disciplines. The popularity of this topic and paper is that it had been citied more than 1,100 times according to the Google Scholar. Moreover, it had been cities for the general business and management in such wide and diverse areas, accounting.
marketing, economics, finance, industrial engineering, information system, communication, political science, ethics, psychology, law, sociology, agribusiness and health care. This article deals the issues that arise in the article that had been published in 1995 with the name of “An Integrative Model of Organization” and find out the future opportunities for research. This paper provides the opportunity to revisit the past research and on this basis evaluate them in the light of future research.
From the past, this topic is remained interesting for discussion and the issue in level of analysis is same as was in the past and more clear extensions to organization and group levels are warranted. The time issue that had been addressed in 1995 has not gotten enough attention according to the expectations. The research on trust is own very small level and it does not generate unexpected result. When there is a consideration of time in trust, it generates results that are more predictable.
The relationship among the risk, trust and control system continues there importance and they are more debated topics of discussion. According to the research, it can be seen that control system and risk are alternate and sometimes they can use for managing risk. Reciprocity of trust clearly recognizes the idea or notion that unlike the relational leadership builds or constructs (LMX), trust is not necessarily and mutual reciprocal. According to the define definition of trust in this article, mixed results produced by the trust in terms of reliability estimates and internal consistency.
The more advance development in measurement area and a need of continued improvements also describe in this article. By research there are many new dimensions of trust are discovered that are, emotion, affect and their impact on trust. These new dimensions play an important in building, violation and repair of trust. These new constructs can be add new dimensions in the model of trust and can provide the future opportunities for research.
Two other key factors have rapid growth and interest in the model of trust; cross culture and international dimensions. Propensity across cultures has greatest opportunities for development. It gives many chances to growth and relative importance of benevolence, integrity and ability across cultures. The model use in this researched has focused on the maximally parsimonious and generalize able; these can be context specific variables and might be add in the model of trust.
This research also described the relationship between subordinate and supervisor at workplace. In addition, the issues in information asymmetry and power make this relationship and it produced unique results when trust is considered in it. Past research had great deal with the trust and it could not be able to get attention bas scholars expected. For the future research, it generates many opportunities. Many promising areas can use for the future research.
The new researchers can take new dimensions of the trust and can make a model. When trust is considered in the model of new dimensions, it creates unexpected results. Cross cultures and international dimensions also have significant importance in the model of trust. Nurturing interpersonal trust in knowledge-sharing networks, this article describes the importance of information sharing and creation networks among the organizations and about the key role of trust among these network.
In addition, how it play an important role in building the interpersonal trust. The success of an organization depends on its information sharing networks. An organization that has efficient and effective system of information and knowledge has great chance of success. When the system of knowledge and information stared, many executives set their own database system in the organization and managed this database for the growth and success of the organization.
Through the database, they share the information about the products, work and shared the experiences and lesson learned. For example, many services providing professional firms developed in the firms the sustainable database due to achieve tools, methodologies, presentations and many other materials that gave quick response around the world. Different types of firms like pharmaceutical firms, health care firms and businesses developed database in the organization to improve the work environment and to get the growth and success.
Database was also beneficial to remove any kind of issues and problems of the organization. It also improved the workplace and communication system around the organization. It improved the productivity of employees. By the recent survey of IDC analyst firm, it was predicted that the demand of knowledge about the management and technologies had increased 41 % annually: from 2.3 billion dollar to 12.7 billion dollar in 2000-2005 respectively.
In addition, there can be seen an increasing trend in the demand of database. Now the organizations are focusing to promote the social network through database. They are applying in the social network analysis to improve the communication system and it can be applicable to a large number of groups such as, mergers, new products development, conglomerates, acquisitions and knowledge about the intensive work, these all processes are collaborating in such a way that support the strategic objectives.
Through this efficient system, the doubling of employees can be prevented. This is also helpful to improve the control and quality system. It can bring and improve the innovation in the new products development by enabling the organizations to use its best expertise. It is showed by both ways; scholarly research and practical experience that social network play an important role in the success of organizations and they critically influenced on the sharing and knowledge creation of organizations.
This article describes how the individuals maintain and build significant relationship through these networks. Interpersonal trust act as a central characteristic in the relationship and it also promote the effective sharing and knowledge creations in networks. Trust plays an important in knowledge sharing and creation. It also increases and promotes overall knowledge exchange and the exchange of knowledge become less costly.
It increased the understanding of stuff, colleagues and employees. Face-to-face communication with the employees and give them more space and time is very difficult in the current economy. Many researches provide the information to promote the interpersonal trust at the points where both knowledge sharing and creation are important.
Chapter 3: Research methodology
Exploratory analysis was conducted in the research. Trust between supervisor and employees will be determined by conducting a survey. The responses collected were manipulated for analysis. A questionnaire survey will be created that will consist of four to five sections. The questionnaire was consisting of open-ended questions, which will be filled out by employees in an organization. A physical survey was conducted with a selected organization.
A projected sample size of 100 was taken. The minimum sample that will go will be 80 participants. A pilot test was conducted where the questionnaire was distributed to small number of respondents in order to determine any misunderstandings or difficulties in the designed questionnaire. Any changes to the survey instrument will be made at this point.
Primary data was collected for the project. Primary data provides authentic and up-to-date findings. Therefore primary data collection was the focus of the study.
The collected data was coded and analyzed, using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). The collected data was entered in the software and results will be generated using descriptive statistics and regression analysis.
Time and financial constraints were the major limitations of the study.
Chapter 4: Findings
Age range for the respondents is ranging for the 10% for 18-24, 70% for the 25-34, 35-44 for less than 10% and less than 20% for the 55-64.
Males included in the study were 57.14% whereas females included were 42.86%.
Organizational sectors included in this study are varied in the five different sectors; highest number of respondents is from Non-Profit organization up to 34%. Government sector is less than 30% whereas publically owned for profit organization that is 4%. Private business for profit organizations is also less than 30%.
The fourth question is the Where I Work, employees given with the opportunity to participate in decision making
Strongly agree is less than 10% and the Agree is 55% whereas the 20% are Neutral in numbers. Disagree and strongly disagree is related to less than 10%.
Have you ever report your organizations interpersonal trust issues or not?
Out of respondents, 40% said No, and 59% responded yes.
Have you ever lost your job because of interpersonal trust issues at your workplace?
Out of the respondents, the eight said No and 2 said yes. One lost job for late coming issues.
Sometimes my manager
Does not trust me is less in all the five. The second is less than 10%. Lazy and Fair are 25% to 30%. Not a good leader is responded for 20 to 25%.
Have you ever felt entrusted at your workplace?
It 55% said that they felt sometimes, 25% responded no and 20% responded yes.
How do you think you can create a trusting atmosphere at your workplace?
All respondents gave different answers for these questions. As per ethical consideration, there answers are coded as it is in this study,
“It starts from the top down. The culture of the company can foster trust and security”.
“By respect other employees”.
“By be affair with all employer”.
“It depends! We have to look at the factors that might cause the mistrust to lead us to a trusting environment. Maybe by adding activities besides working might bring the workers closer and that enhance the trust”
“Be honest with my friends and friendly”
“Be honest and trustworthy”
“Be honest with your boss”
“By have a good HR department that stand for and listen from employee”
Chapter 5: Conclusion and recommendations
Present project investigate the importance of interpersonal trust at work. The major objectives explored in the study include determine the role of trust in workplace environment, assess whether trust helps building strong relationships among employees, evaluate whether interpersonal trust exert main effect on performance of employees in organization. Besides assessing the relationship between interpersonal, trust and workplace behavior and evaluating whether interpersonal trust helps in increasing cooperation, decision making processes and employee’s efforts.
Results reveal that strongly agree is less than 10% and the Agree is 55% whereas the 20% are Neutral in numbers. These were important numbers in the results. Disagree and strongly disagree is related to less than 10%. Out of respondents, 40% said No, and 59% responded yes. This implies that it was an important factor to consider. Out of the respondents, the eight said No and 2 said yes. This was important information to consider. One lost job for late coming issues. Does not trust me is less in all the five. The second is less than 10%. Lazy and Fair are 25% to 30%.
Not a good leader is responded for 20 to 25%. It 55% said that they felt sometimes, 25% responded no and 20% responded yes. It is recommended that interpersonal trust level should be promoted in the organization and top-level management must consider its boundary-spanning role in this regard. Therefore, under the implication of results its implementation is strongly recommended by the management
Anderson, E. W., Fornell, C., & Rust, R. T. (1997). Customer Satisfaction, Productivity, and Profitability: Differences between Goods and Services. Marketing Science, 16(2), 129-145.
Behn, B. K., Choi, J.-H., & Kang, T. (2008). Audit Quality and Properties of Analyst Earnings Forecasts. The Accounting Review, 83(2), 327-349.
Bergman, & Hallberg. (2002). Women in a male-dominated industry. Factor analysis of a women workplace culture questionnaire, 311–336.
Brown, N. J. (2008). Worker Safety under Siege: Labor, Capital, and the Politics of Workplace Safety in a Deregulated World by Vernon Mogensen. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 61(2), 260-262.
Butterfield, J. (2010). Illustrated Course Guides: Teamwork & Team Building – Soft Skills for a Digital Workplace (Illustrated Series: Soft Skills). Course Technology.
Eastaugh, S. R. (1992). Health Care Finance: Economic Incentives and Productivity Enhancement . Praeger.
Hu, Z., Chen, C., & Liu, Z. (2014). How are collaboration and productivity correlated at various career stages of scientists? Scientometrics, 101(2), 1553-1564.
Leeth, J. D. (1998). Simulating Workplace Safety Policy. The Journal of Risk and Insurance, 65(1), 172-173.
Morreaux, A. d. (2012). The Roles of Unions or HR in the Workplace. Retrieved June 30, 2015, from smallbusiness.chron.com: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/roles-unions-hr-workplace-19066.html
Mujahid, N., & Zafar, N. u. (2012). Economic Growth-Female Labour Force Participation Nexus: An Empirical Evidence for Pakistan. Retrieved June 12, 2015, from pide.org.pk/.
Rayner, C., Hoel, H., & Cooper, C. (2002). Workplace Bullying: What we know, who is to blame and what can we do? Taylor and Francis.
Skills, U. a. (2008). Opportunity, employment and progression: making skills work (Cm.). TSO.
Zakerian, S. A., Anbari, Z., Rahmani, A., Abbasinia, M., Dehghan, S. F., Ahmadnezhad, I., et al. (2014). A SURVEY OF THE RELATION BETWEEN WORKLOAD AND QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG HOSPITALSTAFF. Retrieved July 8, 2015, from http://www.hsa.edu.pk/journal/PJPH%20Vol.%204%20No.%201%20March%202014.pd