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Islamic Civilization: Short ID Term

  1. Five pillars of Islam

Five pillars of Islam also known as five pillars of religion. These five pillars are basically five acts which are considered mandatory for all the followers.  These pillars are the basic guideline of a Muslim life as well as a symbol of commitment to faith.  Pillars of Islam include Shahadah (testimony of faith), Salah (prayer s five times a day), Sawm (fasting the whole month of Ramadan), Zakat (almsgiving) and Hajj (pilgrimage to Makah once in live who can afford). These five pillars are internalized personally as the spiritual exercise as well as the act of dedication and commitment.

  1. Caliphate

After the death of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) Muslims form the religious-political state which is known as caliphate.  The caliphate is commanded by a caliph successor) who used to be selected by the Shura (community consultation) and pondered as a leader of the entire Muslim community.  The caliphate was ended in 1093 on the establishment of Turkish Republic. In the recent pas t Isis also claimed that they are so called leader Abu Bake al Baghdadi as their caliph and Iraq and Syria as their caliphate. Caliphate is used to be governed according to the sharia law but what ISIS is doing is absolutely against the teaching of Islam.

  1. Historiography

Historiography is a writing and study that is based on the history and derived from the historical events. It is completely based on the critical examination and evaluation of the sources including the selection of authentic and precise information along with the fusion of details into an account that will stand the evaluation of the methods. In Islamic Civilization, the Historiography gives the basic foundations which were started in 7th century with the reform of the Prophet Mohammad’s life. In the present days, Islam, Historiography play major role in the spread of Islam. Quran and Hadith are two most important sources of Islamic Historiography.

  1. Hadith

In Islamic civilization Hadith is the second most important source of Islamic fundaments after the Quran. Hadith are the collection of traditional accounts and saying of the Prophet Mohammad based on the real life accounts that are known as (the Sunna). The Hadith travel through the most authentic sources therefore, after Quran Hadith is considered as a major source of authentic information and guidance for Muslims. It helps the Muslims to get guidance about various aspects of life by considering the saying and actions of Prophet Mohammad.

  1. Mohammad Al-Khawarizmi

Mohammad Al-Khawarizmi was an intelligent Persian man during the Abbasid Caliphate who had great skills and knowledge about Mathematics, geography and Astronomy, thus he is known as a one of most famous scholar in the House of Wisdom. He introduced the concept of Decimal positional number system and he was the person who first introduced the systematic quadratic equations and linear equations. He is also considering as the inventor of Algebra. He work a lot about the geography, Astrology and Astronomy.

  1. Pax Mongolica

Pax Monglica is a term of Hitoriography which was established following the phrase PAx Romana. Pax Romana gives information about the stabilizing impact of the Mogol Empire on the culture, social and on the economic life of the people of Eurasian region which was captured and conquered by Mongols in 13th and 14th century. This term is associated with the communication effectiveness and the administrative efforts which were made to the re-establishment of Peace in the region after the Mogols’ conquests.

  1. Shah Isma’il Safavi

Shah Isma’il Safavi was also known as Ismail I was a Persian man, the ruler of Iran and the founder of Safavid Dynasty that remained until 1736. In 1500 he started his campaign in Iran when he led the Safaviyya, known as the twelve Shia militant religious orders. In 1509, he unified Iran on the base of these Twelve Shia militant. He succeeds to establish the most powerful empire in Iran therefore, the Safavid Dynasty is known as one of the greatest Iranian Empires. Iamail played vital role in the spread of the Twelver Islam as he converted the Persian region from the Sunni to Shia.

  1. Wahhabism

Wahabism was a historical movement in Islam that spread a religious movement as a mission of Wahabbi. Wahhabism are known as ultraconservative or orthodox and fundamentalist, reform movemtn with a claim to restore the pure monotheistic worship and as an extremist fake Sunni movement by the oppressors. They follow of this religious movement are also known as muwahhid or Salafi. The name of the Wahabism is given after the name of a scholar of eighteenth century Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab. He started the movement from the Najd.

  1. Mustafa Kamal Ata Turk

One of the famous people in the Islamic history is Mustafa Kamal Ata Turk who was a Turkish Army officer, who brought up a revolution in Turkey and he also served as the first president of Turkey. His most considerable achievement is the establishment of Republic of Tureky after the defeat of Ottomon Empire in the First World War. He re-established the Turkey through a Turkish National Movement. He succeeds through his military campaigns and then started a program to re-establish the economic and culture of the country.

  1.  ISIS

ISIS is also known as the Islamic State of Syria and Iraq, is a so called Islamic Force Group claimed to impose the teaching of Islam. This terrorist Islamic group rise in the starting of 2014 when it conquered some part of Syria and started its terrorist activities. The founder and the leader of this organization declared him as the caliphate of Muslim of the world. However, there is no support from any Islamic country for the ISIS as instead of an Islamic nation they are known as terrorist group and instead of following Islam, it is believed that they are following a political Islam to disrespect the Islam.

  1. Jamal-al-Din Al Afghani

Sayyid Janal Al-Din Al-Afghani is another famous name in the history of Islamic Civilization from the l19th century. He was a famous political activist who had left great influence in the regions of Middle East, Europe and South Asia. He was the founder of Islamic Modernism as well as the advocate of Pan-Islamic unity. He consider as more tending towards organizing the Muslim response to Western Pressure instead of giving more attention to the differences in Islamic Jurisprudence. In the admiration of his intellectual thoughts he remained as a Counsellor of King Dost Mohammad Khan and encouraged King to oppose Russian.

  1. Aytollah Khomeini

Ayatollah Khaomeini is the most prominent and key person of the Islamic revolution in Iran in the period of 1979. He is known as the supreme Islamic leader of Iran. He had fought a long war against the Shah Pahlavi and finally he succeeds to remove Shah from his association. The revolution brought great success through religious, cultural and economic progress. In the present Iran, even after the death of Ayatollah Khomeini, still he is consider as a revolutionary hero of Iran he did not merely bring religious but as well as economic development to the country.

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