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Malaria incidence in the Saudi Arabia Second draft

Research Methodology

The methodology is considered one of the integral parts of research. Justifications, as well as methods, are proposed in the research methodology. The current study evaluates the occurrence of malaria incidence in SaudiArabia.  This section is comprised of major elements, which include a type of research, data collections methods, sample size, data analysis techniques and research participants. The inclusion of such elements increased the authenticity and credibility of research under investigation.

The research design is important in research methodology. A descriptive correlation study will be used for studying the increasing malaria cases(Odongo-Aginya, Ssegwanyi, Kategere, & Vuzi, 2005)Citation & Reference added in the city of Makah on the 3 phases. In the first phase, I would(personal pronouns changed)collect the information before the season of Hajj on the different malaria incidents. In the second phase, we have to collect the information about the malaria incidents from the month of October to November. In addition, in the third phase, we have to collect the data about the five months after the Hajj to complete the measuring cycle of malaria. Research questions for the study were-

  • How to measure the malaria incidence in Saudi Arabia during the hajj season
  • What are the causes for such an epidemic the malaria cases or incidences in Saudi Arabia

Population and sample

In the first phase of the study, the researchers make (past tense changed with present tense) a plan with the public medical hospitals of Makah to create a collaboration, in which, after obtaining approval from the Institution Review Board, they were required to serve the pilgrims with medical necessities. The target population of this research includes pilgrims in the city of Makah was included in this research.

The purpose of this research was to identify the reasons in spread of malaria disease during Hajj and other ritualsamong the pilgrims. Therefore, all the pilgrims were the target population for this research. According to the estimations, only about 2 -3% of Hajjes were observed, treated or admitted in the medical centers of Makah for malaria related problemsin the last year. During the year of 2005,malaria incidence cases in Kingdom were125out of 519 cases that were confirmed. The sample size for this study will be about 12902 individuals per phase for getting the satisfactory results.(Snow, et al., 2013)

The sampling criteria in order to identify the target population or participantshavefollowing features:Reworded

1-Age from 15-49

2-Male or Female

3-Read or speak Arabic or English only

Study Design

 The research design is interpretative. The study design emphasis on the interpretation of the malaria casesin Saudi Arabia.(reworded)This approach helps to investigate malaria incidence that affected human body severely.  In this way, health risk challenges have to be investigated based on individual responses of the participants. The research mainly focused on malaria patientsas well as identification methods to prevent this epidemic during hajj season in Kingdom.(rephrased)There are two approaches followed in thiscurrent research involves deductive and inductive approach.(Reworded)The current study employs the deductive approach to investigate the problem of malaria incidence due to the Holy rituals performed throughout the year in Makkah and Medina where the infection could spread by the patients for patient came from different countries. (Appropriation made)

A hypothesized relationship is developed between malaria’s defects and effects in the communities in Saudi Arabia.The current study is explorative, in which in-depth analysis is considered regarding malaria parasites. Qualitative research is followed where qualitative data is taken for the purpose of research. Personal observation, were taken intointerpretation of evaluating the malaria diseases information, is obtained after completion of Hajj in Saudi Arabia.(Rephrased)

Data sources

This study helps to determine the pattern of malaria incidents in Makah after, during and before the Hajj. The 12902 participants (sample Size)were selected for the observation, treatment or admission to the public medical centers of Makah for identifying the malaria cases.  In addition to this, patients of malaria were studied by doctors and surgeonsin the following medical centers: the King Faisal Hospital, King Abdul Aziz Hospital, Dr. Bakhsh Hospital and Mohammad Saleh BasharaHil Hospital. Hospitals, medical institutions, health care centers and government medical offices are also considered for the research participants (scidev.net, 2015).

These are the major medical centers in Makah where research is conducted. Advanced questions are created to get responses of individuals in terms of identifying as well as adopting measures to prevent malaria in pilgrims? (Question included)

In this regard, qualitative data analysis technique is used to interpret data. Interviews, as well as observations, are taken for research participants to get responses. The target area is Makah,so the institutions especially related to handling malaria infections are observed to advocate major aspects in the diseases’ causes.

Methods of data collection

There is a certain research strategy that is used in the current research study based on the questionnaire. Structured, as well as unstructured interviews, are constructed specifically for health care specialists in defined medical care centers. All strategies of research are effective and suitablein determination of prevention methodologies adopted(purpose of research identified)for deriving expected results about malaria incidence in Saudi Arabia.  The purpose and nature of research it to employ different prevention strategies for the collection of data, and all data is used for the research and academic use.(meaning cleared) Interview techniques for the medical specialist are specifically considered for the collection of the data.

The perception of patients and doctorabout malaria cases, recorded/observed in obtaining the expected outcomes. The technique used to gather evidence is the questionnaire, as it is suitable for the qualitative research facilitates exploratory research methodology. The first section of information provides demographic information, which includes gender, occupation, and age.  This information is very important in gathering evidence regarding the perception of respondents.The second part, of a questionnaire, is based on the malaria incidence, pilgrims, and causes of malaria.

For the purpose of an investigation of malaria cases in pilgrims a questionnaire was developed.(reworded)

A) Name, gender, date of birth, country of residence, nationality and education level?

B) Was the target population for this research purpose diagnosed with malaria before this?

C) Did the participants receive the proper treatment for the disease of malaria?

D) Are the participants belonging to the endemic region of malaria?

E) For the malaria check, did the participants take the blood smears?

F) Are participants currently taking the anti-malaria drug?

G) Has the participant used the protective equipment from malaria in past, such as bed net, mosquito net or the house spray?

(Phrase omitted) the participants will fill the questionnaire to obtain the basic or the personal information relating to the study. For ensuring the completion of the questionnaire, if it will be required before assistance will be offered. Then the questionnaire will be reviewed and evaluated in the different areas by the different experts for determining the validity or the reliability (Bryman& Bell, 2007).(comment deleted)

 

 

Study variables

The two variables i.e. independent and dependent variable for this current research would be identified. The dependent variable is the number of pilgrims (Hajjis) whereas the independent variable would be the counter efforts made by the Saudi government to curb malaria. The hypothesis was made in the form of curbing efforts for malaria by the Saudi officials or health department especially during the season of hajj and Umrah. The null hypothesis was to measure the health of a pilgrim before performing any holy ritual and the alternate hypothesis is whether the health of a pilgrim is the only cause for such an epidemic rise in malaria cases i.e. identification of other reasons for epidemic rise in malaria cases.  

The Null Hypothesis (H0) and the Alternate Hypothesis (H1) are as follows:

H0: Measuring health of pilgrims and its effects on malaria spread

H1: Health is the only cause for epidemic spread of malaria or other reasons like poor management of such a large number of people. 

In Makah city, throughout the year, Malaria Indicator Surveys collect data for the research. The current study analyzes responses of specialists and medical professionals as well as of individuals who have malaria and investigates the impact on a Saudi Arab community. Trends of evaluating malaria incidence in Saudi Arabia interpreted by doctors analyzed in the form of frequencies, tabulations, and graphs. Graphs depict the malaria cases (point cleared) of trends in the tables with the actual frequencies of respondents. The unit of analysis of individuals was to get the perceptions of participants during hajj or other holy seasons. (Reworded)

The malaria incidence in Saudi Arabia is considered the independent variable for current research. On the other hand, those pilgrims who suffered from malaria disease and faced severe issues are millions of Muslim in Makah in Saudi Arabia during performing Hajj.(intention made)The cause of malaria and its effect on the community is considered as the dependent variables. In Saudi Arabia, where Makah constitutes the state, a huge population of diverse geographical areas is residents. The Saudi Arabia associates health challenges as well as health risk with the potential for local and international consequences.

Data Collection Procedure

 The collection of data is an integral part of a research process. The current data collection employs primary as well as secondary method. The primary data is collected by medical professionals, doctors, and medical health care specialist from different hospitals that originates updated data. On the other hand, secondary data is also taken from articles, journals and published facts to integrate data analysis.

To gather evidence/data, it has been planned to collect data through interviews from the guardians of the participants, or the participants or through the questionnaires from the public medical hospitals of Makah. For diagnosing asymptomatic malaria infection, Peripheral Blood smears will be taken and tell them that they got the infection of malaria when they arrived in Makah.

For the collection of data, standard forms were used to analyze the statistical package and for further review of the disease in respect of social sciences was made.(meaning cleared)After publishing the research, data forms will no longer are needed, and they will be destroyed. For estimating the cases of malaria before, during and after the Hajj multiple regression models will be used for determination of malaria cases during hajj season. (Variable cleared)

The current data collection is cross-sectional to get diversified results and remove biases in the current research by adopting measures (prevention of disease)The secondary data is selected due to its authenticity of publication. The current research study gets the perception of respondents from doctors and patients in the public hospitals. (reworded)The facilitation of current research process gotten by primary data results as well as its execution. Current and direct responses of doctors support the research efforts to come up with the latest and authenticate findings.

A standards formulation of data analysis is taken to get desired results. Especially SPSS spreadsheet would be (grammar error cleared) utilized in the for data analysis. The confidentiality of respondents was kept secret for consideration of ethics in research.(reworded)The reliability and authenticity of data results are obtained by getting responses in the research from participants.(reworded) Multiple logistical regressions model used to get the effects of malaria as well as other infectious diseases in human body before and after Hajj was taken during the last year from malaria cases statistics issued by the health authorities. (Sense cleared)

Data Analysis Techniques

For the sampling of data, descriptive statistics will be used for identifying the major causes of spread of the disease. (reworded)          For proposing        of the analysis of data major statistical will be used.For determining the differences in the increasing cases of malaria during the Hajj in Makah, descriptive statistics will be used. Due to the influx of the pilgrims to Makah there is no significant difference in the malaria cases. This study helps to measure the rates or the frequencies with 80% powers and 95% confidence intervals. Later by repeating the exact method of study, the validity or the reliability will be established in the second year with the same population for determining if same objectives or results will meet.

Analytical method

The study is conducted in the hospitals of Makah. For that purpose, prior approval is required by the relevant department to get permission for the research study in the hospitals of Makah. It is better to take approvals from certain authorities to make effective research methodologyin preventing epidemic spread of disease.(structured) These prior approvals help the study to confine results characteristics of medical professionals and malaria patients. The facilitation of data collection and research procedure provides authenticity in the current research.(reworded)The appointment of specialist doctors and health care professionals are created in advance of research methodology.(reworded)

 After the appointment, an individual questionnaire is asked to get responses, from research participants.  The interview questionnaires are self-conducted. The purpose of research is also communicated with the participants to sure the secrecy of confidentiality of their information.A structured questionnaire is developed and about 20 to 30 minutes are taken for conducting an interview. The participants in the research are voluntary and participants could leave the interview at any stage. After the collection of data, the data interpreted in the tabulated form to attained desired outcome from research purpose. The tool includes graphs, charts and frequencies for the interpretation of data. 

Letter of consent, as well as approval from the concerned department, is required for the credibility of research purpose. The confidentiality of research participants would keep secrets at any cost.  No personal information is disclosed in the research methodology.  The positive impact of the study should be communicated to the research participants and offered results shared upon request.

 The major significance of current research study is not only helpful for the researchers, practitioners as well as academicians.This study also consolidates major attentiontowards the Saudigovernment to take necessary action to control such diseases in the country. Specialized measurement should be taken to resolve such issues. In this regard, the Saudi government takes benefits from this research.  (Emory, 2006)

There arecertain limitation in the current research that includes the other causes of malaria which is importing of malaria patient in the form of the pilgrims. (cleared)Time and financial constraints inhibit research methodology.  But on the other hand, research participants are adequate for the credibility of research purpose. Medical professionals and health care specialists are the major research participants.

References

Bryman, A., & Bell, E. (2007). Business Research Methods. Oxford University Press.

Emory, W. (2006). Business Research Methods. Irwin-Dorsey Limited.

scidev.net. (2015). Saudi research centre to target malaria and dengue. Retrieved November 7, 2015, from http://www.scidev.net/global/health/news/saudi-research-centre-to-target-malaria-and-dengue-1.html

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