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Turabian Formatting and Citation Guide

Turabian Formatting, also similar to Chicago formatting and citation style was first developed by Kate L. Turabian. The Turabian format was created to make the writing process easier for students that had loads of academic papers waiting to be written. The Turabian documentation writing format is based on two main points such as notes-bibliography style, which is called author-date style and bibliography format. It is also simply known as reference list format and style. And behind the Turabian formatting and citation style, there was a more popular format known as Chicago Manual Style, and there were slight changes and improvements that were made in the Turabian citation and formatting style to make easier for students to apply.

The Turabian Formatting style is sometimes called humanities formatting style or documentary note, and bibliographic citations are used are the bottom at the end of the paper. You can easily find The Chicago Manual of Style (2010) online, and also the 8th edition of Kate L. Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses and Dissertations, online. They all offer guidelines for parenthetical references and citation lists, and parenthetical documentation. The Turabian and Chicago formatting styles are most commonly known as note system styles and are mostly used in humanities, arts, and history academic papers.

Turabian formatting style can be used in various types of subjects such as literature, history, arts, etc. This formatting style consists of several note system formats just like used in Chicago style formatting. The author-date formatting style is more well-known and popular among the writers. It is also famous among the readers of physical, natural and various types of social sciences. When using this type of formatting the writer places the author’s name, and the date of publication within parentheses, and then the writer must copy all the sources the writer quoted from into a list of references.

The difference between the two in-text citation formats used in Turabian style is because of the related data and notes. Otherwise, both the Turabian formatting styles are similar and have the same requirements, guidelines, and features.

Author-Date System Style:

The Author-Date system used in Turabian formatting style uses Parenthetical citations and references. And the text must contain the author's last name and the date of the publication. The reference list in the Turabian citation style can be named as “Works Cited” or “Reference List” and if you aren’t sure which title to use for the citations then you could always ask your professor and instructor for guidelines. The reference list used in this formatting style must have double spaces and should be on the left.

The references added in the reference list must contain all the publication information, and the year, following the name of the author. You could include any relevant information that you think might be useful to the reader and could easily help him find the sources you used as references. The writer can organize and sequence the sources in the bibliography list in alphabetical order from the author’s last name. And if the source you are using does not have an author, then you could list the source alphabetically starting from the title.

An example of the In-Text style is:

(Daily Paper 2016)

An example of the reference list.

Daily Paper, Colson. 2016. The Construction of the Railroad. Chicago: Doubleday-Penguin House LMC.

Turabian Notes-Bibliography System:

This referencing system which is known as the Notes-Bibliography system uses footnotes and endnotes to cite information at the end of the page. Each citation entry is added in the bibliography section. When using the endnotes and footnotes each element is separated by commas. The publication information is used in parenthesis and the author’s name is used as the first name, then the last name is mentioned. The number of the footnote is known as superscript, and it must appear with referenced information at the end of each sentence, following by a punctuation mark.

The bibliography section is titled as “bibliography” and they are written at the end of the paper separately. The elements in the bibliography are separated by periods, and the publication is not within the parenthesis. And the first name of the author is written after the last name.

The sources in the bibliography must be organized in an alphabetical order, and by the author’s last name. And if the source does not have an author then just write the title.

General Guidelines on how to use Turabian Citation Style:

  1. The writer should use 1-inch margins.
  2. The written text must be flushed left and must be double-spaced
  3. There must be no extra lines between the paragraphs
  4. Indent the first line of every paragraph 1-half inch
  5. Writing an Article using Turabian Formatting Style:

Articles can also be written using the Turabian Formatting and Citation style. If they are taken from online journals then you should include a URL, an access date, and the DOI instead. If you downloaded the article then you could just mention the database from where you downloaded the specific article.

Last name, First name. “Article Title.” Journal Title volume number, issue number (year of publication). Page-page. doi: xxx OR URL.

Turabian and Chicago Formatting Style:

Both Turabian and Chicago formatting styles have a lot in common as both formats have a lot of similarities in their formatting and citation styles. Both these formatting styles must include a reference list where the writer adds all the sourcing information at the end of the paper. The page numbers are another common and important element, and it should be added anywhere but the title page.

Limitations must be an inch and they should not be aligned with the other side of the paper. The document must be double-spaced unless your professor asked you to use single space. Never use extra spaces between paragraphs and pages, and use single spacing for your footnotes, endnotes, and bibliography. Both these formatting styles use indentation for the first line of the paragraph which can be done by using the tab key. If your professor has instructed you to use sources then you must include footnotes whenever you write quotes or paraphrase some other source.

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