Dust By Charles Grayson Answer Key

Posted By Admin @ Feb 26, 2022

Tittle: Introduction of Buddhism and Taoism

Type: Report

Subject: Culture/ Social / Society


 In general, Buddhism is considered a religion and the founder of this religion is the Buddha or Siddhartha Gautama over 2,500 years. Over 470 million people follow this religion and due to it, it is considered one of the major religions existing in the world. A variety of spiritual practices, beliefs, and traditions are encompassed in Buddhism which are based largely on original teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama. Most of the traditions associated with Buddhism share the objective of overcoming the cycle of rebirth and death and suffering. In order to do this, there are two methods including the path of Buddhahood and the acquisition of Nirvana.

 Meanwhile, Taoism is also referred to as Daoism. At first, it was a philosophy which can be attributed to Lao Tzu and it became a religion understanding the dynasty of Tang. Therefore, Taoism is not only a Chinese philosophy but also a religion. Generally, it emphasizes significantly on doing what is considered doing natural according to the Dao or Tao. Tao can be simplified as a cosmic force which seems to flow through every single thing. This force also releases and binds them. It can be said that this philosophy grew by observing the natural world while the religion developed from faith in cosmic balance which is regulated and maintained by the Tao (Liang, 2012).

Buddhism Symbolism in Architecture and Art

 Among the most common and earliest Buddhist symbols, lotus flower, Bodhi Tree, Dharma Wheel, and the Stupa are included. Even in modern architecture, these symbols are utilized. Traditionally, the dharma wheel was illustrated with eight spokes, and it can have various meanings. Initially, it portrayed royalty but during the third century, it started to be utilized on the Pillars of Ashoka in the Buddhist context. Generally, the dharma wheel refers to the historical processes and teachings of Buddhism, especially the Noble Eightfold Path. In addition to it, there are various meanings possessed by the lotus as well. It often refers to compassion. Subsequently, it refers to the notion of mind’s pure potential. Meanwhile, the Bodhi Tree portrays the place or spot where nirvana was reached by the Buddha. Thus, liberation is represented by it.

 Some other symbols used in sculptures and architecture include the trishula and the monk’s begging bowl. These symbols are combined with the vajra, lotus, and three jewels which represent Sangha, Dharma, and Buddha. Even in the iconography of Buddhism, deer, rider-less horse, and lion have been used. The teachings of Buddha are often represented through the roar of lion which represents the power of these teachings. Renunciation is represented by the rider-less horse while Buddhist disciples are represented by the deer. In the past, Buddha was not represented as a statue and instead of it, an empty throne with a Tree was used to represent the figure.

 Both Vajrayana and Mahayana Buddhist arts utilize eight auspicious symbols in public and domestic art. At present, these symbols have spread to several other arts including the Chinese, Nepalese, and Indian art. These symbols include lotus flower which represents enlightenment and purity, endless knot which represents eternal harmony, conch shell which portrays the Buddha’s thoughts, parasol which indicates the crown, dharma wheel that represents knowledge, victory banner which portrays a victorious battle, and golden fish which represents conjugal freedom and happiness. Vajra is the central Vajrayana symbol which represents emptiness. It is an indestructible weapon used by Indra. Some other symbols used in architecture include the ritual bell or ghanta. It can be said that the architecture of Tibetan Buddhist is focused significantly on the Stupa. This is also referred to as chorten which is composed of five arts representing the five elements (Mollier, 2008).

 The base is the square and it portrays the earth element while the dome represents water. Over the dome is a cone which portrays fire while the crescent represents air. Lastly, ether is represented by the flame existing inside the flame. The flame’s tapering can be recognized to portray consciousness. In general, Tibetan temples often have three stories. And these three levels can portray several aspects like the Buddha's three aspects. It is possible that the ground storey might have a statue of the Buddha and nirmanakaya might be represented by it. Meanwhile, the first storey might have the same statue with ornamentation which might represent rising above the normal condition of the human. The same can be said about the second storey which might have an Adi-Buddha which represents the development of humanity.

 Some common colors used in the architecture include red, blue, green, white, and yellow. These colors might be supplemented by other colors such as gold, orange, and black. Commonly, these are utilized for visualizing spiritual energy and deities, and prayer flags. The first and one of the most important architectural monuments of Buddhism, the Buddhist Stupa acts as a sacred space’s market. It is a symbolic representation of the burial mound of the Buddha. In the past, the Stupa at Sanchi served as a prototype which was followed by other nations. Generally, a stupa has three features.